U.S. federal agencies have statutory, regulatory and executive order-based obligations to consult with Native American tribes before undertaking actions that may affect the tribal government or tribal property. Perhaps the most significant of these are the National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA) and its corresponding Executive Order 13084 (EO 13084) and the American Indian Religious Freedom Act (AIRFA). This overview examines the statutes’ particular content and government-to-government consultations in general.
The Permanent Forum was established by United Nations Economic and Social Council Resolution 2000/20 on July 28, 2000. It was created as a mechanism to ensure the coordination and regular exchange of information on indigenous issues among governments, the United Nations, and indigenous peoples on an ongoing basis. Within the UN system it is currently the major international platform for dealing with specific indigenous questions.