Topics In Brief

The United Nations

 

Biblio, Statutes, Additional Etceterata
Biblography: 

 

  • Sven Bernhard Gareis and Johannes Varwick, the United Nations, (2005, Palgrave Macmillan)
  • Franz Cede and Lilly Sucharipa-Behrmann, the United Nations Law and Practice, (2001, Kluwer)
  • Roger Normand and Sarah Zaidi, Human Rights at the U.N – the Political History of Universal Justice, (2008, Indiana Univ. Press)

 

Additional relevant Overviews:
 
  • The United Nations Treaty Monitoring Bodies
  • The Expert Mechanism on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples
  • United Nations Special Rapporteur on Indigenous Peoples
  • United Nations Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues
 
Relevant Statutes: 

Relevant International Instruments:

 

  • Charter of the United Nations, 1945
  • Statute of the International Court of Justice, 1945
Helpful Websites: 

 

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Indian Arts and Crafts Act

 

 

I.          The Indian Arts and Crafts Act of 1935:

Biblio, Statutes, Additional Etceterata
Biblography: 

 

  • Kristen A. Carpenter, Sonia K. Katyal, and Angela R. Riley, In Defense of Property, 118 Yale L.J. 1122, 2009
  • Robert J. Miller, American Indian and Tribal Intellectual Property Rights, in NORTH AMERICA, DISCOVERED AND CONQUERED: THOMAS JEFFERSON, LEWIS & CLARK, AND MANIFEST DESTINY, by Robert J. Miller, University of Nebraska Press, 2008
Relevant Statutes: 

 

Fraudulent Practices in the Sale of Indian Arts and Crafts, Ariz. Rev. Stat. §§ 44-1231

  • Indian Arts and Crafts Act of 1935,  ch. 748, § 1, 49 Stat. 891, codified as amended, 25 U.S.C. §§ 305-305(f) (2000)
  • Indian Arts and Crafts Act of 1990, Pub. L. No. 101-644, §§ 106-107, 104 Stat. 4662, 4665, codified at 18 U.S.C. §§ 1158(1), 1159(b)(1) and 25 U.S.C. § 305
  • Indian Arts and Crafts Enforcement Act of 2000, 25 U.S.C. § 305 et seq.
  • Indian Arts and Crafts Amendments Act of 2010, H.R. 725
  • 25 C.F.R. Part 309
Relevant Cases: 

 

  • Native American Arts, Inc., et al. v. The Waldron Corporation, 399 F.3d 87 (7th Cir. C.A. 2005)
  • Native American Arts, Inc. v. Contract Specialties, Inc. d/b/a Sunburst Companies, CA No. 10-1065, Slip Op. (D.R.I. November 29, 2010)
Helpful Websites: 

 

  • United States Department of the Interior, Indian Arts and Crafts Board,

http://www.doi.gov/iacb/act.html

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The Expert Mechanism on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples

 

Biblio, Statutes, Additional Etceterata
Biblography: 

 

S. James Anaya, International Human Rights and Indigenous Peoples (2009, Aspen)
Helpful Websites: 

 

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African Human Rights System

 

Biblio, Statutes, Additional Etceterata
Biblography: 

 

Relevant Statutes: 

 

      Relevant International Instruments:
  • African [Banjul] Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights, art. 31, OAU Doc.CAB/LEG/67/3rev.5, 21 I.L.M. 58 (1982).
  • Protocol To The African Charter On Human And People's Rights On The Establishment Of An African Court On Human And Peoples' Rights, OAU Doc. OAU/LEG/EXP/AFCHPR/PROT (III) (June 9, 1998), available at http://www.achpr.org/english/_info/court_en.html
Relevant Cases: 

 

  •  Centre for Minority Rights Development and Minority Rights Group International on behalf of Endorois Welfare Council v. Kenya, African Comm'n H. & Peoples' R., Comm'n 276/2003 (2009)
  • See, e.g., Bakweri Land Claims Committee v. Cameroon, African Comm'n H. & Peoples' R., Commc'n 260/2002 (2004);
  • see also, Anuak Justice Council v Ethiopia, Comm. No. 299/03, Afr. Comm'non Human & Peoples' Rights, (2006). But see, The Social and Economic RightsAction Center for Economic and Social Rights v. Nigeria, Comm. No. 155/96, P 40,Afr. Comm'n on Human and Peoples' Rights (2001), in which the Commission found Nigeria had violated the rights of the Ogoni community to dipose of their wealth and natural resources by failing to consult them regarding oil production on their lands and by allowing multinational oil corporations to pollute their environment.
Regulations: 

 

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U.S. Federal Agency Consultation with Native American Tribes with the Corps of Engineers as Example

 

U.S. federal agencies have statutory, regulatory and executive order-based obligations to consult with Native American tribes before undertaking actions that may affect the tribal government or tribal property.  Perhaps the most significant of these are the National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA) and its corresponding Executive Order 13084 (EO 13084) and the American Indian Religious Freedom Act (AIRFA).  This overview examines the statutes’ particular content and government-to-government consultations in general.

Biblio, Statutes, Additional Etceterata
Relevant Statutes: 

 

  • National Historic Preservation Act, 16 U.S.C. 470 (1966).
  • American Indian Religious Freedom Act, 42 U.S.C. 1996 (1978).
  • National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), 42 USC 4321-4347 (1969).
  • Administrative Procedures Act (APA), 16 USC 470aa-470mm (1946).
  • Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA), 25 USC 3001 et seq.
  • Archeological Resources Protection Act (ARPA), 16 USC 470aa-470mm.
Relevant Cases: 

 

  • Lyng v. Northwest Indian Cemetery Protection Association, 485 U.S. 439 (1988).
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Committee on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination

 

Biblio, Statutes, Additional Etceterata
Biblography: 

 

  • Atsuko Tanaka, Yoshinobu Nagamine, the International Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Racial Discrimination: A Guide for NGOs, (Minority Rights Group and IMADR, 2001)
  • S. James Anaya, International Human Rights and Indigenous Peoples (2009, Aspen)
  • Max Plank Year Book of the United Nations Law Volume 3, eds. Jochen A. Frowein, Rudiger Wolfrum, (Kluwer Law International, 1999) 489

 

Relevant Statutes: 

Relevant International Instruments:

  • CERDGeneral Recommendation No. 23: Indigenous Peoples: 08/18/1997.Gen. Rec. No. 23. (General Comments)
  • International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination
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Terra Nullius

 

Biblio, Statutes, Additional Etceterata
Biblography: 

 

  • Lauren Benton and Benjamin Straumann“Acquiring Empire by Law: From Roman Doctrine to Early Modern European Practice” 28 Law & Hist. Rev. 1 (2010).
  • Julie Cassidy “Sovereignty of Aboriginal Peoples”  9 Ind. Int'l & Comp. L. Rev. 65 (1998).
  • Joshua Castellino “Territorial integrity and the "right" to self-determination: an examination of the conceptual tools” 33 Brooklyn J. Int'l L. 503 (2008). 
  • John Locke, Second Treatise of Civil Government 25-34 (Lester DeKoster ed., William B. Eerdmans Publ'g Co. 1978) (1690).
  • Eamon Lorincz, “Book Note: Possessing the Pacific: Land, Settlers, and Indigenous People from Australia to Alaska, by Stuart Banner” 32 Harv. Envtl. L. Rev. 597 (2008).
Relevant Cases: 

 

  • Mabo v Queensland [No 2] (1992) 175 CLR 1[Australia]
  • Western Sahara: International Court of Justice Advisory Opinion (16 October 1975)
  • Johnson v. M’Intosh 21 U.S. 543 (1823) [United States]
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The Indian Gaming Regulatory Act

 

 

Biblio, Statutes, Additional Etceterata
Biblography: 
  • Kevin Washburn, Recurring Problems in Indian Gaming, 1 Wyo. L. Rev. 427 (2000).
Relevant Statutes: 
  • 25 U.S.C.A. § 2701– 2721 
Relevant Cases: 

 

  • California v. Cabazon Band of Mission Indians et al, 480 U.S. 202, 205 (1987).
  • Seminole Tribe of Fla. v. Florida, 517 U.S. 44, 75 (1996).

                                        

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United Nations Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues

 

The Permanent Forum was established by United Nations Economic and Social Council Resolution 2000/20 on July 28, 2000. It was created as a mechanism to ensure the coordination and regular exchange of information on indigenous issues among governments, the United Nations, and indigenous peoples on an ongoing basis. Within the UN system it is currently the major international platform for dealing with specific indigenous questions.

Biblio, Statutes, Additional Etceterata
Biblography: 

 

  • Lola García-Alix, the Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues, (2004, IWGIA) 
  • S. James Anaya, International Human Rights and Indigenous Peoples (2009, Aspen)

 

Relevant Statutes: 

 

      Relevant International Instrument
  • United Nations Economic and Social Council Resolution 2000/20 (E/RES/2000/22) -http://www.un-documents.net/e2000r22.htm
Helpful Websites: 

 

  • International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs - http://www.iwgia.org/sw218.asp
  • United Nations Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues - http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/unpfii/en/about_us.html
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Allotment

 

Biblio, Statutes, Additional Etceterata
Biblography: 

 

  • Cases and Materials on Federal Indian Law (5th ed.), Chapter 4, Section A, by David H. Getches, Charles F. Wilkinson, and Robert A. Williams, Jr. (eds.), 2005
  • Kristen A. Carpenter, Contextualizing the Losses of Allotment through Literature, North Dakota Law Review, Vol. 82: 604
  • The Rights of Indians and Tribes: The Authoritative Guide to Indian and Tribal Rights, by Stephen L. Pevar, 2004
  • Meriam Report (Brookings Institute), 1928
Relevant Statutes: 

 

  • General Allotment Act, 24 Stat. 388, as amended, 25 U.S.C. Section 331-358 (GAA)
  • Indian Reorganization (Wheeler-Howard) Act of 1934, 25 U.S.C.A., Sections 461 et seq. (IRA)
Relevant Cases: 

 

  • Ex Parte Crow Dog, 109 U.S. 556, 3 S.Ct. 396, 27 L.Ed. 1030 (1883)
  • United States v. Kagama, 118 U.S. 375, 6 S.Ct. 1109, 30 L.Ed. 228 (1886)
  • Lone Wolf v. Hitchcock, 187 U.S. 553, 23 S.Ct. 216, 47 L.Ed. 299 (1903)
  • United States v. Sandoval, 231 U.S. 28, 34 S.Ct. 1, 58 L.Ed. 107 (1913)
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