The Permanent Forum was established by United Nations Economic and Social Council Resolution 2000/20 on July 28, 2000. It was created as a mechanism to ensure the coordination and regular exchange of information on indigenous issues among governments, the United Nations, and indigenous peoples on an ongoing basis. Within the UN system it is currently the major international platform for dealing with specific indigenous questions.
In July of 1996, while attending hydroplane races on the Columbia River near the town o Kennewick, WA, two young men found a human skull in the shallow waters along the river’s banks and promptly contacted the local coroner. The coroner in turn contacted James C. Chatters, an archeologist. Over the course of the next month, Chatters discovered an almost complete skeleton in the riverbed
The American Indian Probate Reform Act (“AIPRA”) was signed into law in October 2004 and took effect in June 2006. This Act is an amendment to the Indian Land Consolidation Act which was passed in 1983. AIPRA made significant changes to the Indian probate system in an attempt to make the system less complicated, and also specifically sought to remedy the serious problem of “fractionation” of Indian trust lands.